Laser marking machines use laser beams to place permanent marks on the surface of various substances. The effect of marking reveals the deeper material through the evaporation of the surface material, thus engraving beautiful patterns, trademarks, and text. Laser marking machine is mainly divided into CO2 laser marking machine, semiconductor laser marking machine, fiber laser marking machine, and YAG laser marking machine. A laser marking machine is mainly used on some occasions that require more fine and higher precision. It is applied to electronic components, integrated circuits, electrical appliances, cell phone communication, hardware products, tool accessories, precision instruments, glasses and clocks, jewelry and jewelry, auto parts, plastic keys, building materials, PVC pipes.
Laser marking uses laser beams to put permanent marks on the surface of various substances. The effect of marking is to reveal the deep material through the evaporation of the surface material, or to "engrave" traces through the chemical and physical changes of the surface material caused by light energy, or to burn off part of the material by light energy to reveal the desired etched pattern or text.
Fiber laser marking machine laser power supply is a device to provide power for the fiber laser. Its input voltage is AC220V. It is installed in the marking machine control box.
Fiber laser marking machine adopts imported pulsed fiber laser with good output laser mode and long service life, designed to be installed in the marking machine housing.
The oscillating mirror scanning system comprises two parts: optical scanner and servo control. The whole system is designed and manufactured with new technology, new material, new process, and new working principle.
The optical scanner adopts the servo motor of dynamic magnetic deflection working mode. It has the advantages of large scanning angle, large peak torque, large load inertia, short electromechanical time constant, fast working speed, stability, and reliability. Precision bearing clearance mechanism provides ultra-bottom axial and radial runout error; "electronic torque bar" replaces the traditional elastic material torque bar, greatly improving the service life and long-term reliability of work; zero power at any position to maintain the working principle not only reduces the use of power consumption, but also reduces the heating effect of the device, eliminating the need for thermostatic devices; advanced High-stability precision position detection sensing technology provides high linearity, high resolution, high repeatability, and low drift performance.
The optical scanner is divided into an X-direction scanning system and a Y-direction scanning system, with laser reflector lenses, fixed on each servomotor axis. Each servo motor is separately controlled by a digital signal from the computer to control its scanning trajectory.
The function of the focusing system is to focus the parallel laser beams at one point. Different f-θ lenses have different focal lengths, and the marking effect and range are different. The fiber laser marking machine uses an imported high-performance focusing system with a standard configuration lens focal length f=160mm and an effective scanning range Φ110mm. Users can match the type of lens according to their needs.
Optional F-θ lenses are.
f=100mm, effective focusing range Φ65mm.
f=160mm, effective focusing range Φ110mm.
The computer control system is the center of the whole laser marking machine control and command and the carrier of software installation, through the coordinated control of acousto-optical modulation system and oscilloscope scanning system to complete the marking processing of the workpiece.
The computer control system of fiber laser marking machine mainly includes chassis, motherboard, CPU, hard disk, memory stick, D/A card, floppy drive, monitor, keyboard, mouse, etc.
The recognized principles are two.
"Thermal processing" has a high energy density of the laser beam (it is a concentrated energy stream), irradiation on the surface of the material being processed, the material surface to absorb laser energy, the irradiation area in the thermal excitation process, so that the material surface (or coating) temperature rises, resulting in metamorphosis, melting, ablation, evaporation, and other phenomena.
"Cold processing" has a very high load energy (ultraviolet) photons, which can break the chemical bonds within the material (especially organic materials) or the surrounding medium, to the point that non-thermal processes destroy the material. This cold processing has special significance in laser mark processing because it is not thermal ablation but rather a cold peeling that breaks chemical bonds without the side effect of "thermal damage" and thus does not produce heating or thermal deformation of the inner layer of the surface being processed and the surrounding area. For example, excimer lasers are used in the electronics industry to deposit thin films of chemicals on substrate materials and create narrow slots in semiconductor substrates.
Compared with the inkjet marking method, the superiority of laser marking and engraving lies in a wide range of applications. Various substances (metal, glass, ceramics, plastics, leather, etc.) can be marked with permanent high-quality markings. No force on the surface of the workpiece, no mechanical deformation, no corrosion on the surface of the substance.
Can engrave a variety of non-metallic materials. They are used in garment accessories, pharmaceutical packaging, wine packaging, construction ceramics, beverage packaging, fabric cutting, rubber products, shell nameplates, craft gifts, electronic components, leather, and other industries.
1. Can engrave metal and a variety of non-metallic materials. More suitable for applying some products requiring fine and high precision processing.
2. Used in electronic components, integrated circuits (IC), electrical appliances, cell phone communication, hardware products, tool accessories, precision instruments, glasses and clocks, jewelry and jewelry, auto parts, plastic keys, building materials, PVC pipes, medical equipment, and other industries.
3. Applicable materials include common metals and alloys (iron, copper, aluminum, magnesium, zinc, and all other metals), rare metals and alloys (gold, silver, titanium), metal oxides (all kinds of metal oxides are available), special surface treatment (phosphating, aluminum anodizing, electroplating surface), ABS material (electrical appliances shell, daily necessities), ink (translucent keys, printing products), epoxy resin (electronic components encapsulation, insulation layer). Insulation layer).
The most common laser marking machine on the market is mainly CO2 laser marking machine and YAG laser marking machine, later YAG laser marking machine gradually replaced by semiconductor laser marking machine, becoming the largest share of the laser marking machine market model, there is also high-end end pump laser marking machine, fiber laser marking machine, UV laser marking machine, etc.
With the development of science and technology, the electronic industry fiber laser marking machine is more and more accepted. Its characteristics are very obvious: integrated design, small size, low power consumption, long life, high efficiency, maintenance-free, high-quality laser beam, spot fine, no consumables.
Laser marking machines, according to the different laser, can be divided into CO2 laser marking machines, semiconductor laser marking machines, YAG laser marking machines, fiber laser marking machines. According to the different laser, visibility is divided into:
UV laser marking machine (invisible).
Green laser marking machine (visible laser).
Infrared laser marking machine (invisible laser).
According to the wavelength
According to the different laser wavelengths can be divided into deep ultraviolet laser marking machine (266 nm), green laser marking machine (532 nm), lamp pump YAG laser marking machine (1064 nm), semiconductor side pump YAG laser marking machine, semiconductor end pump YAG laser marking machine (1064 nm), fiber laser marking machine (1064 nm), CO2 laser marking machine (10.64um ).
1. Deep UV laser marking machine: 266 nm.
2. Green laser marking machine: 532nm.
3. Lamp pumped YAG laser marking machine: 1064nm.
4. semiconductor side pumps YAG laser marking machine, semiconductor end pump YAG laser marking machine: 1064nm.
5. fiber laser marking machine: 1064nm.
6. CO2 laser marking machine: 10.64um.
1. Lamp pumped YAG laser marking machine: the use of krypton lamp as the energy source (excitation source), ND: YAG as the medium for generating laser light, emitting a specific wavelength can prompt the work of the material production energy level jump to release the laser, the laser energy amplification will form the laser beam on the material processing.
2. CO2 laser marking machine: CO2 gas is used to fill the discharge tube as the medium for laser generation, and high voltage is added to the electrode to produce a glow discharge in the discharge tube, resulting in the release of laser light from the gas molecules, which amplifies the laser energy to form a laser beam for material processing.
3. Semiconductor side pump YAG laser marking machine: using a wavelength of 808nm semiconductor laser diode-pumped Nd: YAG medium, so that the medium produces a large number of reversed particles in the Q switch under the action of the formation of the wavelength of 1064nm giant pulse laser output, electro-optical conversion efficiency.
4. Semiconductor end pump YAG laser marking machine: directly from the end of the laser, a crystal will be pumped into the semiconductor pump light (808nm) through the optical mirror output to produce the laser. Make the line light conversion efficiency greatly improved.
5. Fiber laser marking machine: direct output laser from the fiber.
6. Green laser marking machine: green laser marking machine is developed using the most advanced international laser pumping technology (side pumping or end-side pumping) using a wavelength of 532nm.
1. CO2 laser marking machine: mainly used for non-metal (wood, acrylic, paper, leather, etc.), inexpensive.
2. Green laser marking machine, UV laser marking machine: mainly used for high-end very fine IC and other products. Higher prices product customization is the main.
3. Lamp pump YAG laser marking machine: mainly used for metal, plastic, and other low demand products, laser marking machine price is moderate.
4. Semiconductor side pumps laser marking machine: the same as the lamp pump YAG laser marking machine use surface, but more stable, moderate price.
5. Semiconductor end pump laser marking machine: the same surface as the lamp pump YAG laser marking machine, stable and power-saving, but for high-end production, the price is higher.
6. Fiber laser marking machine: fine marking, power saving, maintenance-free, used for cell phones, keys, and other high-end products. The price is high.
Semiconductor pump lasers produce less waste heat, the cooling system required is small. Generally, only one horsepower chiller can be, need lamp pump lasers to need more than two horsepower chiller, while the need for larger pumps to provide a larger cooling water flow. Therefore, its operation lamp pump laser marker operation noise, while the huge chiller will generate more heat, especially in the southern summer, the ambient temperature is higher, these excess heat will make the workers' working environment worse, or need more air conditioning system to regulate the temperature of the working environment, increasing the cost of production.
A Since a semiconductor diode emits almost only one wavelength of light, the monochromatic nature of the laser pumped by it is better, and the laser pattern is better. A good laser-pattern will result in a smaller laser spot after focusing and more concentrated energy, achieving better marking results.
Semiconductor and lamp-pumped lasers both use ND: YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) crystal as the material for laser generation, which converts 808nm visible light into 1064nm invisible laser, but another more critical factor in the output laser is the pumping source that makes the crystal bar output laser, semiconductor pumping is the use of semiconductor diodes to emit 808nm light waves; and lamp pumping is The use of krypton lamps to pump the light, but the krypton lamp emits a broader spectrum of light, only a slightly larger peak at 808nm, the other wavelengths of light eventually become useless heat emitted.
The semiconductor laser module is small, coupled with its good laser mode, so the volume of CNC machine tools semiconductor pumps laser than lamp pump laser volume of nearly one-third smaller.
In short, the use of semiconductor lasers than the use of lamp-pumped lasers, although the price of each marking machine is slightly higher, the cost of each marking machine can be accurately calculated within three years of use will save 119.05 million yuan, which does not include the loss of the replacement lamp caused by downtime standby and thus affect the production (the user can calculate), the expenses of the replacement lamp personnel, as well as the lamp quality caused by the waste of maintenance of the production environment The increased cost of air conditioning and cooling, etc.
Semiconductor diode life is long. Its rated working time is greater than 10,000 hours, while the life of the krypton lamp is only a few hundred hours (generally in the 400-600 hours or so). Hence, the lamp pumps laser in work after some time is required to replace the krypton lamp, especially for metal marking, the energy required is greater, the life of the krypton lamp will be more affected. Therefore, the CNC machine tool semiconductor pump laser is also known as a maintenance-free laser, meaning that it works without consumables for a considerable period without maintenance. Our company to more effectively extend the service life of the semiconductor laser diode pump source, the use of pre-combustion plus frequency control technology, that is, to ensure that the light-emitting tube is not subject to current shock, according to the workload and intensity, the most significant reduction in the current density through the light-emitting diode, thereby effectively extending the service life of the semiconductor diode. Depending on the different production tasks of different users, the service life of the semiconductor laser light-emitting diode can be guaranteed between one and three years. Each semiconductor pump marking can save the cost of light replacement consumables: greater than 12 lamps/year * 350 yuan/piece * 3 years = 12,600 yuan.
The lamp pump laser marking machine needs to stop often to change the krypton lamp, which is unacceptable for many large production lines. As the life of the krypton lamp is not the same, there is a possibility that the uneven quality of domestic lamps caused by the use of krypton lamps is more waste. So switching to semiconductor marking machines can save a greater degree of downtime maintenance caused by workforce and material resources loss.
Due to the high conversion efficiency of the semiconductor pump, good mode, easier to focus the high energy of the smaller area of the spot, marking the same object, the external energy required will be smaller. At the same time, the waste heat generated is also much smaller than lamp-pumped lasers, which determines that it does not need a lamp-pumped laser as a huge cooling system. Therefore, the power consumption of a semiconductor-pumped laser system is much smaller than that of a lamp-pumped laser.
A 50W lamp-pumped laser marking machine power consumption in about 6KW, while a 50W semiconductor laser marking machine power consumption is only about 2KW, for example, three years, 24 hours a day, 28 days a month, one industrial electricity 1.1 yuan, light power consumption, a semiconductor laser than a lamp-pumped laser to save (6-2) KW * 24 hours * 28 days * 12 months * 3 years * 1.1/degree = 106.45 million RMB.
Check the water circuit and circuit are correct before turning on the machine. Turn on the machine in the following order.
① Turn on the incoming power, turn on the key switch. At this time, the mechanical ventilation and cooling system are energized, the ammeter shows a value of about 7A.
② wait for 5 to 10 seconds, press the trigger button on the external control panel, the ammeter shows a value of zero, 3 to 5 seconds later, the krypton lamp ignited, the ammeter shows a value of 7A. (Refer to the laser power operation manual).
③ Turn on the power of the oscillator.
④Open the computer, call out the required marking file.
⑤ adjust the laser power supply to the working current (10 ~ 18A), you can start marking.
After marking, turn off the power of each component in the reverse order as follows.
① Adjust the laser power supply working current to the minimum (about 7A).
② Turn off the computer.
③Turn off the power of the oscillator.
④Press the stop button.
⑤ Turn off the key switch.
⑥Disconnect the incoming power supply.
Marking machine solutions:
① laser resonant cavity change; fine-tune the resonant cavity lens. Make the best output spot;
② acousto-optical crystal shift or acousto-optical source output energy is low; adjust the acousto-optical crystal position or increase the acousto-optical source working current;
③ into the vibrating mirror laser deviation from the center: adjust the laser;
④ if the current is adjusted to about 20A still does not feel strong enough: Krypton lamp aging, replace the new lamp.
Marking machine solutions:
① check all the power connection lines;
② high-pressure krypton lamp aging, replace the krypton lamp. Laser marking machine operating precautions
① no water or water circulation is not normal in the case of starting the laser power supply and Q power supply;
② do not allow Q power supply no-load work (i.e., Q power supply output overhang);
③ anomalies, first close the mirror switch and key switch, and then check;
④ do not allow other components to start before the ignition of the krypton lamp to prevent high pressure fleeing into the damaged components;
⑤ pay attention to the laser power supply output (anode ) overhanging, to prevent fire and breakdown with other appliances;
⑥ Keep the internal circulation water clean. Regularly clean the water tank and change clean deionized water or pure water.
First, the laser marking machine should be used as far as possible in a dust-free, 10 ℃ -35 ℃ environment to keep the optics dry dust-free. Usually need to ensure a separate closed workroom, to ensure a constant indoor temperature, ground paint or tiles, installation of air conditioning.
Second, the customer must provide the main power supply to support at least 2500W AC single-phase power supply. Our company provides the equipment main power line must be installed on an air switch to do protection, the use of triangular plug is strictly prohibited.
Third, the main power supply provided by the customer shall have a ground, and the false connection is strictly prohibited.
Fourth, the cooling water in the circulating water tank is best to use deionized water. If there is no deionized water, distilled water can be used instead; circulating cooling water should be replaced promptly after some time (it is recommended that at least two weeks for a change of water) not to affect the efficiency of the laser.
Turn off the water cooler, laser power. Open the upper three cavity covers, take out the lamp or crystal to be replaced, replace it and put it in, put on the cavity cover. Turn on the water cooler, laser power, and adjust the laser power current to about (15~20) A. Place 1 small piece of wood or black paper between the front diaphragm and the beam expander mirror and the spot formed by laser ablation should be seen. If not, slightly adjust the three knobs of the front diaphragm holder until the spot appears. Turn off the power to the laser.
Special Note: Time to replace the krypton lamp For example, if the current value of the new krypton lamp is 20A when marking, after using it for some time, if the current value cannot be marked properly even after turning it up to 25A, the krypton lamp should be replaced.
Laser technology is one of the four major technological inventions of the twentieth century, atomic energy, semiconductors, and computers. Laser has very good monochromatic, coherent, directional, can be accumulated in a very small area of high energy density, especially suitable for material processing. In the late seventies and early eighties, a new laser application technology - laser marking technology quietly emerged in the international community and quickly industrialized, becoming one of the largest areas of application of laser processing. Laser marking technology uses a computer-controlled laser as a means of processing. The basic principle is: computer-controlled high energy density of the focus of the laser beam according to the predetermined trajectory of mechanical parts, electronic components, instruments, and other workpieces need to be marked on the surface so that the surface material to achieve instantaneous vaporization or chemical changes in color, etching out a certain depth or color of the text, patterns, etc., to leave a permanent mark on the surface of the workpiece. The surface of the workpiece is permanently marked.
Laser marking technology as a modern precision processing method, and corrosion, EDM, mechanical scribing, printing, and other traditional processing methods, compared with the unparalleled advantages:
1. Using laser processing means there is no processing force between the workpiece, with no contact, no cutting force, the advantages of small thermal impact, to ensure the original accuracy of the workpiece. At the same time, the adaptability of the material is wide, can produce a very fine mark on the surface of a variety of materials, and has very good durability.
2. The spatial and temporal control of the laser is very good, and the freedom of the material, shape, size, and processing environment of the processing object is very large, which is especially suitable for automatic processing and special surface processing. And the processing mode is flexible, which can adapt to the needs of a laboratory-type single design and meet the requirements of industrial mass production.
3. laser marking fine lines can reach the millimeter to micron scale. Laser-marking technology is very difficult to imitate and change to produce the mark. The product is extremely important to anti-counterfeiting.
4. laser processing system and computer numerical control technology can be combined to form a highly efficient automatic processing equipment, and you can hit a variety of text, symbols, and patterns, easy to use the software design marking pattern, change the mark content, to adapt to the modern production of high efficiency, fast-paced requirements.
5. laser processing without pollution sources is a clean and pollution-free high environmental protection processing technology.
Laser marking technology has been widely used in all walks of life for high quality, efficient, pollution-free, and low-cost modern processing production, opening a broad prospect. With the continuous expansion of modern laser marking applications, the requirements for miniaturization, high efficiency, and integration of the laser manufacturing equipment system are also higher.